Corfu is an island with a very long history.
Artifacts from the Paleolithic period (40,000 to 30,000 BC) have been found in the southwestern part of the island. Also settlements in the north part of the island provide evidence of habitation during the Mesolithic period and several Neolithic ( 6000–2600 BC).
Corfu is frequently mentioned in Greek mythology as well. In The Homer’s Odyssey , the shipwrecked hero Odysseus is washed ashore with the help of the goddess Athena and awakens to the laughter of princess Nausika and her friends washing clothes in a nearby stream (widely thought to be somewhere on the northwest coast, possibly at modern Ermones). They bring him to the Phaeacian Palace and after revealing his identity to King Alkinoos he is given a ship to take him safely back to Ithaka. However during the return trip the Phaeacian ship is turned to stone by Posideon, still enraged because Odysseus’ men had blinded Poseidon’s son the Cylcops, in revenge for the Phaeacians helping Odysseus
During the Golden Age of the ancient Greek civilization, the city of Corinth established a colony in Corfu and brought great wealth and culture to the island. Also Corey was used as a stepping-stone west for the colonization of Kroton in southern Italy. In 665 BC though, Corfu fought with Corinth, in what Thucydides described as the first sea battle in Greek history. This was the first but not the last battle between the two cities , who remained at odds for centuries more . Corfu then, as an independent island , prospered with trade and by the 6th Century was minting its own coins, had constructed a fine Archaic temple of Artemis (source of the famous Gorgon pediment) and it had a population of over 10,000 people. During the Persian Wars of the fifth century, Corfu had a fleet second only to that of Athens . They sent a fleet of 60 ships to the Battle of Salamis but according to Herodotos they took their time about getting there to avoid the battle and were criticized by the Athenians. In 433 BC , Corfu’s treaty of alliance with Athens against Sparta and Corinth set off the Peloponnesian Wars, which engulfed all of the Greek city-states, who were obliged to take the side of either Athens or Sparta. The island lost half its population in these wars and eventually fell to the Spartans loosing its wealth and glare.
Later in history, during the Medieval Age, the Old Fortress of the town of Corfu and its harbor is the place where first the Byzantines and then the Venetians, housed their guards and harbored their fleets to defend the island of Corfu against Barbadian invasions.The Byzantines were the first to construct the eastern top in the 6th century AD and named it “Sea-Tower”. They also created the first harbor to keep their ships, the famous “Dromon”, safe. Nevertheless, the main fortification and most of the buildings inside the castle were constructed by the Venetians (1402-1797). Also, in the Venetian period the peninsula was separated from the island by a moat. Later, the British renovated the fortifications and constructed new premises which served as residential premises for military, political and aristocratic people. In 1840 they also built the chapel of Saint George in 1840 which offers a spectacular view.
Nowadays, the old castle has been characterized as an archeological area and houses the Historical Archive of island, the Public Library, services of the Ministry of Culture and sections of the Ionian Academy. It is considered one of the most beautiful locations in Greece; a jewel in the Ionian Sea. Many international and local artists arrange their concerts here during the summer months. Also many directors decide to shoot plans for their movies. For instance, the Fortress was the location of a scene from the James Bond film For Your Eyes Only in which the Mercedes of the evil adversary of Bond, Emile Locque, gets pushed off a cliff by Bond.
Main source: https://www.greecetravel.com/corfu/history.html